God is and remains free and sovereign, not only to bestow his mercy and compassion on whomsover he will, but he equally the sovereign Lord in regard to reprobation. “For the Scripture saith unto Pharaoh, even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might shew my power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth”. More clearly and forcefully no mere human philosophy of predestination could possibly express it. Pharaoh, in all his pride and rebellion against the Lord, may not for a moment imagine that he is sovereign, and that even his opposition to the word of God and refusal to let Israel go, can possibly thwart God’s purpose. On the contrary, in his vain rebellion he serves God’s purpose. That purpose is that, through Pharaoh’s perversion and obduracy, God might show his power, and his name might be declared throughout all the earth. And it is for this very purpose that God raised up the wicked king. And again, the apostle concludes, this time emphasising both aspects of sovereign predestination, “therefore hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth” (Romans 9:17-18). How many and who of all mankind shall constitute the membership of the church is determined by free grace, according to sovereign election.